65 engines intake system

engines intake system

By Vukasin Herbez on 2018-07-06 17:06:09

Often when explaining the functions of a car's engine, we can use analogies with the human body. The engine is like a heart, engine power is like muscles, shock absorbers are like knees and so on. Today, we will explain the car‘s intake which could be thought of as a car‘s respiratory system. It is one of the most important parts of the engine since, without it, there wouldn´t be internal combustion and the engine wouldn‘t produce any power. Every car on the planet, petrol or diesel powered, regardless of age or technology, has an intake system which mixes fuel and air. Also, the intake system in good working order guarantees that a car will deliver advertised power and fuel economy.

1. Carburetors

The carburetors are an outdated but still present intake system in older vehicles or classic cars. The basic function of a carburetor is to make fuel and air mixture and send it to the engine´s cylinders where it will be lit, moving the engine´s cylinders and making power. The carburetors are old as the car itself and their basic principle is pretty simple inside of the carburetor there is a butterfly valve which opens and closes as you press the throttle. It allows the air to get inside where it is mixed with the sprays of petrol making an explosive mixture.

The carburetors were in use until the ‘90s when they were replaced with fuel injection systems. Contrary to popular belief, carburetors weren´t a less powerful solution since they allowed almost direct airflow into the engine, but they were much less reliable than fuel injection. They also required a periodic tune-up and were affected by changing weather, cold and moisture. Also, due to lack of precision, carburetors were not as fuel efficient as modern fuel injected engines.

2. Fuel injection

All modern vehicles use the fuel injection system since it is far superior in terms of precision, fuel economy and durability. Fuel injection systems have been in use since the ‘60s but became the industry‘s standard in the ‘80s replacing the carburetors. The basic principle of fuel injection is simple and requires precisely measured air and fuel mixture which is pumped into the intake manifold under pressure and then sent to the cylinders. The first fuel injection systems were mechanical ones but today we have electronic fuel injection systems which benefit from multiple sensors there to perfectly determine the amount of fuel, monitor temperature, control fuel economy and deliver maximum power. There are three main types of car fuel injection:

1. Single point fuel injection

This is the most primitive fuel injection system which consists of a single nozzle which sprays fuel and air mixture into the intake manifold. This system is used in low performance and older vehicles since it doesn‘t provide much engine power.

2. Multipoint fuel injection

As you can guess, this system has multiple nozzles which are located near the intake valves in the cylinder heads. These nozzles shot the fuel and air mixture almost directly into the cylinders. This approach allows the mixture to be fully ´inhaled´ by the cylinders which help the power and fuel economy. The multipoint or port fuel injection is very common in most of today‘s petrol and diesel engines.

3. Direct fuel injection

This intake system is the latest in fuel injection technology and represents the ultimate way of feeding the engine. The fuel injection nozzle is located directly on top of the combustion chamber near the spark plug and sprays perfectly measured amounts of fuel and air mixture directly on top of the cylinder. This way there are no intake valves, just exhaust valves, and direct injection requires accordingly designed cylinders. This principle is also used in diesel engines and has the best fuel economy and power output.

The statements expressed above are only for informational purposes and should be independently verified. Please see our terms of service for more details
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